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How Schools Change: Lessons from Three Communities Revisited / Edition 2
Temporarily Out of Stock Online Please check back later for updated availability. Overview The first edition of How Schools Change chronicled the efforts of three very different high schools to improve teaching and learning in the early 's. Average Review. Write a Review. Since the current outbreak began in early , more than 7, people have been infected and about 3, people have died of Ebola, according to the World Health Organization. In , the outbreak was traced back to contaminated needles at a hospital, where only five syringes were used each day to treat all the patients.
The closure of the hospital helped; however, the researchers found evidence that the rate of new cases decreased considerably even before that hospital closed. The decline of the outbreak most likely resulted from changes in the community's behaviors, such as altering traditional burial practices so that people could avoid catching the virus from dead patients, the researchers said. Piot had traveled to what was then called Zaire to investigate the first outbreak of Ebola, an entirely unknown virus at the time.
The following discussion therefore focuses on these areas and related challenges for course design. Problems with fluency and oral confidence in the classroom can therefore also affect teaching in other ways, leading, for example, to less experimentation and creativity and greater dependence on textbooks. In the post-course interviews 16 months after the end of the course, three of the four teachers mentioned having difficulties in maintaining their proficiency due to lack of opportunities to practice speaking English.
These results may also indicate that there is a need for a greater concentration on how to teach grammar and pronunciation pedagogical content knowledge as opposed to the more theoretical linguistic component that comprised the first part of the course.
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Although the longitudinal results were based on a small number of observations and case studies, the research raised questions about how sustainable the gains in oral proficiency and confidence were; it also showed that the course design and CQ program lack measures which can contribute to sustaining professional development in the long run.
The research overview by Timperley et al.
The research results in this study showed that teachers on the CQ course had very few opportunities for systematic collaboration on the course, with no synchronous online communication course-based components between seminars. Neither was there any systematic cooperation with home school or home area English teachers. The individualized course design and lack of planned collaboration on the CQ courses mitigate against sustainability, especially given the lack of post-course follow-up. Indeed, in Phase 2, one of the questionnaire results showed that only one of the 33 course participants was part of an English teacher network.
This is a problem threatening the long-term credibility of the course program since teachers cannot develop in isolation. These impoverished networks do not offer teachers the opportunity to forge links with similar subject-specialist teachers, leaving them to develop subject and occupational expertise in isolation Broad, , p. Despite the lack of follow-up or participation in English teacher networks, most of the teachers on the CQ course may still have learned sufficient skills for inquiry and gained sufficient knowledge, skills and momentum to be able to continue developing, albeit sometimes in relative isolation, if they can find sufficient time to seek out new impulses and resources.
The study started with a broad comparison of course designs focusing on the contextual dimension, before the focus was narrowed down to one course group as a whole, finally culminating in a longitudinal study assessing aspects of the impact of the course on individual teachers in their local contexts.
By combining the use of mixed methods and a longitudinal design, the three-phase design succeeded in covering a wide field in depth. As such, the study design and research progression can be considered as a contribution to knowledge — the model showing how a single researcher can shed light on a broad research area while taking into account context, before focusing on a course cohort group and then individual participants.
The overall mixed-methods approach, especially in the second phase, allowed insights to emerge that would otherwise have remained hidden. For example, the quantitative data indicated that the amount of translation used by the teachers had reduced significantly.
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One of the reasons given for this by a teacher was that she was now able to justify not translating when confronted by parents who expected that teachers should always translate words in class in case one pupil did not understand. In the case of the PhD study reported here, the mix of data allowed a greater depth of understanding. Nonetheless, the study had methodological limitations which meant that direct causal claims of the impact of different aspects of course design on teacher development must be treated with caution. Simon Borg , who has been in the forefront of the research development in teacher cognition within language teacher education, argues that much of the increasing amount of research into teacher cognition e.
This holistic focus resulted in the combined breadth and depth of the overall findings in this study. The study also provides examples of the complexity of theorizing teacher development since some cognitive and affective processes do not necessarily progress in a coherent fashion. For example, one case study teacher reflected that her confidence in her own oral English did not increase during the course due to her becoming more aware of her own limitations.
This illustrates how the research sometimes resulted in the emergence of a fuller picture of the complexity of developmental processes. As documented in the introduction, a high proportion of those who teach English to children in Norway have no specific EFL teacher education. The research in this study indicates that many of these teachers are likely to be strongly lacking in confidence in their oral proficiency and in the range of their teaching methods.
The results suggest that future CQ courses should more fully utilize the spaces between face-to-face seminars by organizing regular weekly conversations between teachers in English, with the support of teacher educators, in order to discuss the implementation of classroom-based tasks as new input and theory is tested out in class, in line with research recommendations e.
In terms of classroom changes and improvements, the results suggest that CQ course participants will solidify their English subject knowledge base and expand their English language teaching repertoire. Nonetheless, the study also implies that many teachers will remain lacking in confidence in their own oral English. This is likely to hamper their ability to teach oral fluency, including pronunciation and intonation, in a sufficiently playful or creative manner to ensure that they are able to instill a lasting love of English language learning in their pupils during the vital early years.
This is a serious limitation because the nurturing of such an enthusiastic appreciation of the language can help to create a strong longer-term motivational foundation in young learners. Such an affective development can in turn function as an effective buffer when pupils grow older and face the more stringent demands and cognitive challenges of more complex language learning. If pupils have learned to love English, they may, for example, be more receptive to the teaching of language accuracy and grammar in secondary school.
The national program could be substantially devolved to the regional and local levels so that schools and municipalities can assume co-responsibility for collective development, including the creation of English subject teacher networks, in collaboration with the universities and colleges delivering the CQ courses. The results suggest the need for two main areas of research focus, first in relation to changes in subject matter content, course organization, and implementation; and second, but equally important, in relation to longer-term impact and follow-up.
Given the expense and dimensions that the CQ in-service EFL 1—7 teacher education programme is now assuming in Norway, it is essential to evaluate how it can become more effective. Such research needs to adopt a multi-dimensional perspective, including using a longitudinal approach, and different research methods, both qualitative and quantitative. The effect of the introduction of a sustained focus on oral proficiency as the main course subject matter integrated with English teaching methodology should be investigated.
Such research would depend on the implementation of obligatory participation in regular online English conversation between seminars. These classes would consist of discussion and reflection on classroom-based tasks, supported by teacher educators. The research would attempt to measure the impact of the course on oral proficiency and confidence.
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Second, a longer-term research project is needed to assess the effectiveness of developing English subject teacher networks to improve the post-course impact of the CQ courses. This could take the form of action research, designed to find optimal solutions for developing thriving local or regional communities of English primary school teachers.
Oppgrader til nyeste versjon av Internet eksplorer for best mulig visning av siden. Hopp til bunn-navigering. English Norsk. Frigi tilgang. Review A number of meta-studies of cross-disciplinary research of professional development and in-service training e.
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Table Time frame and number of hours on course Desimone, c. Motivation among participant teachers Timperley et al. Credible ways of working with new ideas and practices Postholm, b. Active learning, a variety of activities, modelling of teaching Timperley et al. Overlapping of Research Phases over Time. Overview of the three research phases. To what extent does the in-service training have impact on the beliefs and knowledge, confidence, self-reported classroom language and practices of the teachers? What was the longer-term impact on the teachers within their school contexts?
Document analysis: of course designs, evaluation reports Semi-structured interviews with course designers Field study of local-regional course: interviews with teacher educators, administrators, teachers. Theoretical frameworks for course design. Samples In Phase 1, three course samples were selected with the aim of comparing the design of the CQ focus course with the design of another CQ course and with that of a non-CQ course.
Methods In Phase 1, the course designs were studied using document analysis, semi-structured interviews with individual teacher educators course designers and with small focus groups of teacher educators at each of the three institutions where courses were compared. Course design In the analysis of the different types of course designs Phase 1 , one of the main strengths of the organizational design of the CQ courses was found to be the provision of two days a week paid study time over one whole school year, compared with the almost total lack of such a provision on the local non-CQ course.
Longer-term professional development These findings were corroborated by the case study evidence and analysis Phase 3 , which showed that all of the four case study teachers began to use a more varied repertoire of methods and materials. Discussion: Contributions to the english didactics field This mixed-methods study examined the professional development of a group of experienced primary school teachers who had previously taught English without any EFL teacher education.
Methodological contributions The study started with a broad comparison of course designs focusing on the contextual dimension, before the focus was narrowed down to one course group as a whole, finally culminating in a longitudinal study assessing aspects of the impact of the course on individual teachers in their local contexts. Theoretical contributions Simon Borg , who has been in the forefront of the research development in teacher cognition within language teacher education, argues that much of the increasing amount of research into teacher cognition e.